The effects of the NCAA guidelines on the equitable treatment of student-athletes.

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Wells, Robert
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Middle Tennessee State University
The purpose of this study was to compare the attitudes of National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I-A college presidents, athletic directors, head football coaches, men's head basketball coaches, women's head basketball coaches, and student athletes on the equitable treatment of student athletes in the following areas: (1) the payment of scholarship athletes, (2) the equitable treatment of student athletes, (3) work for scholarship athletes, and (4) NCAA regulations regarding scholarship athletes.
The survey instrument used in this study was subjected to a pilot study in order to scrutinize its content. A panel of experts that included college coaches, college presidents, athletic directors, compliance officers, NCAA officials, and doctoral committee members provided input. As a result, the instrument was adopted for use.
The study was limited by the following criteria. One hundred and eight NCAA member Division I-A football and basketball institutions were surveyed. Those institutions represented every geographical area across the United States. An equal number of presidents, athletic directors, and head coaches of football, men's basketball, and women's basketball were surveyed. Fifty-four institutions were randomly selected from the 108 Division I-A institutions. Thirty student athletes (10 participating in football, 10 participating in men's basketball, and 10 participating in women's basketball) from each of the 54 institutions were also surveyed.
The survey instrument consisted of 34 questions which were broken down into four groups: (1) payment of scholarship student athletes, (2) equitable treatment of student athletes, (3) work for scholarship athletes, and (4) NCAA regulations.
Questions 1-11 addressed the payment of scholarship student athletes. In this group of questions, responding groups and gender showed a significant difference at {dollar}p less than .0001{dollar}. Race also showed a significant difference at {dollar}p less than .0002{dollar}.
Questions 12-18 addressed the equitable treatment of student athletes. The responding groups showed that student athletes and head coaches were in disagreement with presidents and athletic directors, with a significant difference at {dollar}p less than .0009{dollar}. Minorities were in disagreement with whites, with a significant difference at {dollar}p less than .0019{dollar}.
Questions 19-24 addressed work for scholarship athletes. The only significant difference at {dollar}p less than .0001{dollar} in this section was the responding group of student athletes. Student athletes were in agreement that they should be allowed to work in some manner and to be compensated for that work.
Questions 25-34 addressed current NCAA regulations. There was a significant difference at {dollar}p less than .0001{dollar} in student athletes' views of NCAA regulations versus the presidents', athletic directors' and head coaches' views.
The data gathered from the returned surveys were statistically evaluated using the multiple analysis of variance (MANOVA) and the Tukey method to determine a significant difference at {dollar}p less than .05{dollar}.
It is apparent to the researcher that college athletics provides multiple opportunities for thousands of students. Student athletes are not only given the opportunity to play the game they love and receive a free education, they are also afforded the chance to earn an undergraduate or graduate degree. Unfortunately, for many of these participants, earning a degree has become an afterthought, falling far behind the goal of winning. The 21st century is certain to bring about change in college athletics in the United States. It appears to the investigator that the opinions of head coaches and student athletes in this study clearly need to be recognized by the NCAA.
Major Adviser: A. H. Solomon.