The Perceived Effectiveness of Different Recovery Modalities for Elite NCAA Division I Baseball Players

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MacDonald, Quinn
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Middle Tennessee State University
The purpose of this study was to examine the perceived effectiveness and use of different recovery modalities among Division I NCAA baseball players. The recovery modalities studied included cupping, electrical stimulation, blood flow restriction, contrast therapy, hot water immersion, cold water immersion, pneumatic device, and manual therapy. Through an electronic survey, participants were asked questions regarding demographics, followed by questions for each recovery modality regarding perceived effectiveness (1 to 5 rating) and use during their collegiate career (yes/no). Based on reported use, questions were presented to capture reasons for not using the modality or frequency, timing, and reasons for using the modality. A total of 54 Division I baseball players (age: 20.5 ± 1.6 years) completed the survey. In terms of perceived effectiveness and use, respectively, the top three modalities were manual therapy (4.1  0.9; 93%), cupping (3.8 ± 0.6; 85%), and electrical stimulation (3.7 ± 1; 76%). Among those who used the top 3 modalities, manual therapy was the most frequently used (56% daily or 2-3 times per week), followed by electrical stimulation (42% daily or 2-3 times per week) and cupping (92% using once per week or month). The top reason(s) for use were personal and/or athletic trainer belief that the recovery modality was effective. Among the most frequent contributors to not using a modality were personal belief that the recovery modality was ineffective, and that the modality was inconvenient or uncomfortable/unenjoyable. Overall, the results of perceived efficacy and use of each recovery modality showed consistency, which was supported by the reasons for use or no use of each modality.
Health sciences