War, Terrorism, and Reconstruction: Gender Disparities for Primary Education in Pakistan and Afghanistan

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Foreman, Elisabeth
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University Honors College, Middle Tennessee State University
This thesis explains why Afghanistan had a higher gender disparity for girls’ primary education than Pakistan from 1970 to 2015. Scholars have previously studied ongoing barriers that are still prevalent today including rural poverty, school and teacher quality, parental education, and cultural norms. Although these barriers are a continuous challenge for girls’ education, they are not sufficient explanations for why Afghanistan has a significantly higher gender disparity than Pakistan. This thesis analyzes the conflict in both Afghanistan and Pakistan to further understand the difference. Therefore, I argue that war intensity and lack of opportunity for reconstruction are the determining factors to answer the research question on why Afghanistan has a higher gender disparity than Pakistan.
Gender Parity Index, Pakistan, Afghanistan, war intensity, reconstruction